Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 6 March 2013, 10:22

Ships use raw plastic beads as roller balls to move heavy shit around. After moving the plastic beads are swept overboard and the marine science community have been researching where and in what those balls end up.


So this is the chemical conversion of the carbons in plastics into CO2 + water and biomass.
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Even under the optimal lab conditions the rate of evolution was so slow that they had to use 14-Carbon labelled polymer to observe the process. Recent investigation shows a carbon conversion of <1.2% over 3 months.
Extensively degraded polymers will biodegrade at faster rates.
Rates as low as 0.2% and 5.7% carbon conversion per 10 years for low-density polyethylene [LDPE] with and without pre-photodegradation.
(Thanks to Andrady,L,A, 2011. Microplastics in the marine environment.)

Oh and most of the microplastic particles are generated on beaches where they exposed to the most effective weathering. So beach cleaning is an effective strategy for microplastics at least.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby azshooter » 8 March 2013, 11:15

That dogs give birth to puppies. I was always under the impression that they laid eggs.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Blaz » 8 March 2013, 14:21

While muscle fiber types are generally classified as slow and fast twitched there are four other classifications. I, IIA, IIX(D),and IIB. IIB are found in insignificant amounts in humans but are abundant in small mammals.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Magic J » 8 March 2013, 18:13

...The ins and outs of the Christian concept of Eucharist (the consumption of bread that has been turned into the body of Christ by a priest or minister). Basically, most protestants rejected the Catholic version of Eucharist, where the bread becomes the flesh of Christ but retains its outer form accessible to the senses (which is known as "transubstantiation"), and accepted another idea known as "consubstantiation", where the bread is both the flesh of Christ and also just plain bread. At the same time.

Not going to lie, I'm not seeing much of a difference. Perhaps I'm just not thinking hard enough, but did this little theological disagreement really necessitate plunging Europe into a century of bloodshed? To be honest, I'm more concerned about the fact that Christians are regularly and willingly eating what they believe to be human flesh.

Unless of course you're some fringe lunatic Anabaptist who takes offence at the thought of cannibalism and just eats bog standard bread on a Sunday. You crazy Anabaptists. How dare you. :P

EDIT: Corrected spelling.
Last edited by Magic J on 8 March 2013, 18:44, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby René » 8 March 2013, 18:30

*transubstantiation
*consubstantiation

It is pretty crazy. I don't remember what I thought about any of this when I was a Christian. I think I just tried not to think about it at all. :P
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Magic J » 8 March 2013, 18:42

Ah, cheers for the correction. I have trouble reading my lecture notes. They tend to descend into some form of hieroglyphic by the end of every class. :lol:

The Orthodox churches are with you on that one, I believe. They just call Eucharist a "Mystery" and leave it at that. They were more concerned with their punch up with the Muslims, I suppose. :P
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Yoko318 » 8 March 2013, 20:06

I'm not sure about most Christian religions, but I know my church (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) teaches the symbolism of the whole thing. It isn't transformed when it's blessed by a priest, it becomes a symbol for us to contemplate the atonement as we partake of it.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby DoctorRoo » 9 March 2013, 01:41

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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 9 March 2013, 05:18

Some trawling nets stretch for miles. If they get lost these ghost nets will go on catching fish for years.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Brenden » 9 March 2013, 05:56

Mr.Monkey wrote:Some trawling nets stretch for miles. If they get lost these ghost nets will go on catching fish for years.

:(

It wasn't today, but it's related: By weight, there are now more ships in the ocean than fish. :shake:
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 9 March 2013, 06:37

Brenden wrote:
Mr.Monkey wrote:Some trawling nets stretch for miles. If they get lost these ghost nets will go on catching fish for years.

:(

It wasn't today, but it's related: By weight, there are now more ships in the ocean than fish. :shake:

Yeah it's crappy. If you've ever been to a marine reserve it really is amazing how much life is abound and it's right up to the edge boundary.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Brenden » 9 March 2013, 06:49

Mr.Monkey wrote:
Brenden wrote:
Mr.Monkey wrote:Some trawling nets stretch for miles. If they get lost these ghost nets will go on catching fish for years.

:(

It wasn't today, but it's related: By weight, there are now more ships in the ocean than fish. :shake:

Yeah it's crappy. If you've ever been to a marine reserve it really is amazing how much life is abound and it's right up to the edge boundary.

I don't understand why the international community hasn't come up with a treaty mandating sustainable fishing. We're on the brink of many fisheries collapsing, just so that people can have cheap fish now. How can we make people understand that if they don't want to pay more for fish now then they're not going to have any in the future?

Ugh, humanity. :facepalm:
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 9 March 2013, 07:59

Brenden wrote:I don't understand why the international community hasn't come up with a treaty mandating sustainable fishing. We're on the brink of many fisheries collapsing, just so that people can have cheap fish now. How can we make people understand that if they don't want to pay more for fish now then they're not going to have any in the future?

Ugh, humanity. :facepalm:


Part of it comes down to sampling models. The ones the fisheries use to determine a safe stock come with a set of assumptions like naming the population closed, complete mixing in stock, constant recruitment, constant fishing and mortality and that recruitment and selection (by this I assume death) are "Knife Edge". Which are the assumptions for the following. The model is Yield Per Recruit and the equation was developed by Beverton and Holt.

\frac{Y}{R}= F exp[-M\left &#40; t_{c}-t_{r} \right &#41;]W_{\infty }[\frac{1}{Z}-\frac{3S}{Z+K}+\frac{3S^{2}}{Z+2K}-\frac{S^{3}}{Z+3K}]

S=exp[-K \left&#40;t_{c}-t_{r}\right &#41;]
Not sure why those numbers and semi colons are there (near "-M and -K") they should be closed brackets, I even reworked it into LaTex code. :S

So K is the growth constant from the Von Bertalanffy growth curve.
T0 is the age of recruitment in the growth curve
Tc is the age at first capture
Tr is the age at recruitment
Winf is the asymptotic body weight
F is the fishing mortality
M is the natural mortality
Z = F+M

Anyway this model is good and robust enough to be used widely but it doesn't account for inter system drift. An area scarce of fish may be where the larvae are while a population brimming with adults may be fed from the scarce area. Also fish size matters in egg generation. A single ripe red snapper of 61 cm length and 12.5 kg contains 9,300,000 eggs. Which is equivalent to what 212 females of 42 cm and 1.1 kg each can produce.

Most of this is taken from a lecture a few years old and one that doesn't have the context of notes (right now at least) so I'm missing the exact model the fisheries use. It comes down to the amount of uncertainty they are comfortable with because it allows them to keep fishing and overfishing.


Another case of wilful uncertainty is the introduction of SLED in trawl nets. SLED stands for Sea Lion Exclusion Device and it's a large steel or aluminium grate that covers the collection section of the trawl net. Fish like squid are small enough to pass through the bars but seals and dolphins will hit the bars at speed and may sustain heavy trauma that could lead to fatality.
Fishermen use SLED because it appears to work (no mammals in net = no damage to mammal populations) and by appearing to work it lessens the protesting they get from 'Greenie' types. But whether they work or not is currently under debate with Marine Scientists remaining sceptic.
You see the quota of acceptable mammal mortality may have a cap like 100 per year. If Catch exceeds 100 that fishery will be shut down for the season. But now without obvious net mortality we have no record and seasons extend for the entire year.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Brenden » 9 March 2013, 08:11

*sigh*

Mr.Monkey wrote:Not sure why those numbers and semi colons are there (near "-M and -K") they should be closed brackets, I even reworked it into LaTex code. :S

For some reason parentheses and brackets don't work in GFO's LaTeX. René hasn't been able to figure out a fix for it yet.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 9 March 2013, 08:14

Maaan I wrote a shitload, I expect more than a sigh from you in future :argh:

JK

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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Brenden » 9 March 2013, 08:26

Mr.Monkey wrote:Maaan I wrote a shitload, I expect more than a sigh from you in future :argh:

I didn't know what to say! :runaway:

I appreciate your shitload, though. Very informative. :)
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Blaz » 10 March 2013, 16:17

The most common name in the world is Mohammad.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Mod » 20 March 2013, 08:44

Alright so today I spent my Marine Vert. lesson figuring out the ratio of Type I muscle or 'red' muscle to Type II or white muscle. The difference between the two is that red has more capillaries and mitochondria as well as myoglobin which are used to sustain aerobic function over a long time.
Meanwhile your white muscle groups are called twitch muscles and they support short anaerobic bursts of energy.
In the Chinook Salmon we examined the muscle is mostly white with a mean ratio of 0.061. Interestingly what gives salmon's white muscle its pinkish tinge is an ocean diet of shrimp and krill that are rich in carotenoid astaxanthin. The pigment colours the entire fish but not in equal distributions. Near the tail of the fish the colour can be seen as a light orange rather than a deep pink-red.

Also I learned how to use the NZ fisheries website to find out catch per year/month for any given species using any given fishing method.

For example the catch of Blue Cod in the Otago region for 2012/2013 was 2,354 kgs out of an area of 1919058 Ha! which is down from last year (2011/2012) which was a catch of 81,340 kgs. That seems silly so I figure the season proper hasn't opened up yet (or rather they do a full count at the end of the financial year). So 2010/2011 looks a lot more reasonable at 77,826 kgs.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Paragon » 21 March 2013, 01:48

Right, so, the founding members of the Sugababes each left the band one by one, and now they've come back together as a totally unrelated new band? And the Sugababes still exist.
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Re: Today I learned... (Post interesting facts.)

Unread postby Blaz » 21 March 2013, 02:13

While it is possible for type IID & IIB muscle fiber types to transform into type IIA fibers. Current research limitations show that it is not possible for IIA fast twitch muscles to transform into type I.
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